In the early 17th century, the Pope imprisoned Galileo for saying that the earth was not the center of the universe, yet, there is no one today who would dispute that the Earth revolves around the Sun. In spite of this, these same people are still using the Genesis creation story in the Bible as a proof that God created the universe. It is clear that the Genesis story refers to a geocentric earth, for instance in 1:16 on the fourth day, God places the Sun ("the greater light") into the sky above, rather than placing the Earth around the Sun. Apparently, God does not know the true function of the Sun even though he made the "Stars also". By creating "Day and Night" on the first day, God appears to be unaware of the mechanism that causes "light" or "daylight" and neither does He understand the principle of photosynthesis, since he created the plants on the second day, two days before he created the Sun on the fourth day.
Later, God appears to talk to Adam and Eve from his home in the clouds except for the times, such as in Genesis 3.8 when pops down to "walk in the garden in the cool of the day". He does not ride down to them in a spaceship from the center of the Milky Way galaxy nor does he mention Adam and Eve's alien cousins. He might have been able to use them as an example of behaved children, if perhaps they had not eaten the forbidden fruit and are still living in the alien Eden.
Given this, I decided that it was high time to create a new Genesis that shows the current scientific opinion on the creation of the universe and of human beings so that the preachers can preach from fact. (Thanks for the help on the Big Bang at physicsoftheuniverse.com.)
In terms of the pesher, Genesis was written as an allegory to advocate for a solar calendar over the inaccurate moon calendar. The solar calendar has 7 days in a week with invariant days of the week, which add to 364 days in the year. This message is obscured in the mistranslation of Genesis 1:16 which actually reads as "And God made the two great lights, the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light, the stars, to rule the night." The assumption the translators made was that was that the "lesser light" was the moon and thus added the stars as if an after thought. Genesis is known to have been written during the Babylonian captivity and the writer knew from the advanced science of Babylon that the moon only reflected the sun's light and that the stars and the moon by astrology ruled one's fate. The information about the calendar is at The Calendar of Noah.
|Italic is KJV of Biblical Genesis story. Following each is the Scientific creation|
|1:1 In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.|
At about 13.8 billion years ago, all that existed in the vacuum of space before the smallest unit of time in the Plank Epoch of|
one Plank second (0 to 10-43 second (.0000000000000000000000000000000000000000001 second)
was a universe smaller than size of
one Plank (1.6 x 10-35(.000000000000000000000000000000000016 meters)
with a temperature that exceeded
one Plank (1.4 x 1032degrees Centigrade (100000000000000000000000000000000 degrees Centigrade).
|2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.|
|It was so hot and the internal pressure was so strong that the four distinct forces: the strong force, gravity, the electromagnetic, and weak force were unified into one. This balance was unable to be maintained and this tiny universe began to expand and cool down.|
|3 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.|
|In the Grand Unification Epoch of 10–43 seconds to 10–36 seconds, gravity separates from the strong force and the electromagnetic, and weak force, which remained unified and the earliest elementary particles (and antiparticles) begin to be created.|
|4 And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.|
|In the Inflationary Epoch of 10–36 seconds to 10–32 seconds, the strong force separates from the electroweak force. The universe undergoes an extremely rapid exponential expansion, known as cosmic inflation. The linear dimensions of the early universe increases during this period of a tiny fraction of a second by a factor of at least 1026 to around 10 centimeters (about the size of a grapefruit). The elementary particles remaining from the previous epoch (a hot, dense quark-gluon plasma, sometimes known as “quark soup”) become distributed very thinly across the universe.|
|5a And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night.|
|In the Electroweak Epoch of 10–36 seconds to 10–12 seconds, the electroweak force separates into electromagnetic force and the weak force. Many exotic particles, including W and Z bosons and Higgs bosons are created. The presence of the Higgs boson (the so-called God particle) proves the existence of the Higgs field, which slows particles down and confers mass on them, allowing a universe made entirely out of radiation to support things that have mass).|
|5b And the evening and the morning were the first day.|
|6 And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.|
|In the Quark Epoch of 10–12 seconds to 10–6, quarks, electrons and neutrinos form in large numbers as the universe cools off to below 10 quadrillion degrees, and the four fundamental forces assume their present forms. Quarks and antiquarks annihilate each other upon contact, but, in a process known as baryogenesis, a surplus of quarks (about one for every billion pairs) survives, which will ultimately combine to form matter.|
|7 And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.|
|In the Hadron Epoch of 10-6 seconds to 1 second seconds to 101 seconds, the temperature of the universe cools to about a trillion degrees, cool enough to allow quarks to combine to form hadrons (like protons and neutrons). Electrons colliding with protons in the extreme conditions of the Hadron Epoch fuse to form neutrons and give off massless neutrinos, which continue to travel freely through space today, at or near to the speed of light. Some neutrons and neutrinos re-combine into new proton-electron pairs. The only rules governing all this apparently random combining and re-combining are that the overall charge and energy (including mass-energy) be conserved.|
|8a And God called the firmament Heaven.|
|In Lepton Epoch, from 1 second to 3 minutes: With the majority (but not all) of hadrons and antihadrons having been annihilated of the previous epoch, leptons (such as electrons) and antileptons (such as positrons) dominate the mass of the universe. As electrons and positrons collide and annihilate each other, energy in the form of photons is freed up, and colliding photons in turn create more electron-positron pairs.|
|8b And the evening and the morning were the second day.|
|9 And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so.|
|In the Nucleosynthesis Epoch, from 3 minutes to 20 minutes: The temperature of the universe falls to the point (about a billion degrees) where atomic nuclei can begin to form as protons and neutrons combine through nuclear fusion to form the nuclei of the simple elements of hydrogen, helium and lithium. After about 20 minutes, the temperature and density of the universe has fallen to the point where nuclear fusion cannot continue. Photon Epoch (or Radiation Domination), from 3 minutes to 240,000 years: During this long period of gradual cooling, the universe is filled with plasma, a hot, opaque soup of atomic nuclei and electrons. After most of the leptons and antileptons had annihilated each other at the end of the Lepton Epoch, the energy of the universe is dominated by photons, which continue to interact frequently with the charged protons, electrons and nuclei.|
|10 And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.|
|In the Recombination/Decoupling Epoch, from 240,000 to 300,000 years: As the temperature of the universe falls to around 3,000 degrees (about the same heat as the surface of the Sun) and its density also continues to fall, ionized hydrogen and helium atoms capture electrons (known as “recombination”), thus neutralizing their electric charge. With the electrons now bound to atoms, the universe finally becomes transparent to light, making this the earliest epoch observable today. It also releases the photons in the universe which have up till this time been interacting with electrons and protons in an opaque photon-baryon fluid (known as “decoupling”), and these photons (the same ones we see in today’s cosmic background radiation) can now travel freely. By the end of this period, the universe consists of a fog of about 75% hydrogen and 25% helium, with just traces of lithium.|
|11 And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so.|
|In the Dark Era, from 300,000 to 150 million years, is after the formation of the first atoms and before the first stars. Although photons exist, the universe at this time is literally dark, with no stars having formed to give off light. With only very diffuse matter remaining, activity in the universe has tailed off dramatically, with very low energy levels and very large time scales. Little of note happens during this period, and the universe is dominated by mysterious “dark matter”.|
|12 And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good.|
|In the Reionization Epoch, 150 million to 1 billion years: The first quasars form from gravitational collapse, and the intense radiation they emit reionizes the surrounding universe, the second of two major phase changes of hydrogen gas in the universe (the first being the Recombination period). From this point on, most of the universe goes from being neutral back to being composed of ionized plasma.|
|13 And the evening and the morning were the third day.|
|14 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:|
|In the Star and Galaxy Formation Epoch, 300 - 500 million years onwards: Gravity amplifies slight irregularities in the density of the primordial gas and pockets of gas become more and more dense, even as the universe continues to expand rapidly. These small, dense clouds of cosmic gas start to collapse under their own gravity, becoming hot enough to trigger nuclear fusion reactions between hydrogen atoms, creating the very first stars.|
|15 And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.|
|The first stars are short-lived supermassive stars, a hundred or so times the mass of our Sun, known as Population III (or “metal-free”) stars.|
|16 And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.|
|Eventually Population II and then Population I stars also begin to form from the material from previous rounds of star-making. Larger stars burn out quickly and explode in massive supernova events, their ashes going to form subsequent generations of stars. Large volumes of matter collapse to form galaxies and gravitational attraction pulls galaxies towards each other to form groups, clusters and superclusters.|
|17 And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth,|
|The Solar System Formation Epoch, 8.5 - 9 billion years: Our Sun is a late-generation star, incorporating the debris from many generations of earlier stars, and it and the Solar System around it form roughly 4.5 to 5 billion years ago (8.5 to 9 billion years after the Big Bang).|
|18 And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good.|
|The planets condense from in the material that circles our Sun and form "planetesimals" which begin to clear the space around them by collecting debris around them and by collisions.|
|19 And the evening and the morning were the fourth day.|
|20 And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.|
|In the Hadean Era, two hundred million years after the formation of the Earth, oceans were formed. Some 3000 million years ago, photosynthesizing cyanobacteria evolve; they use water as a reducing agent, thereby producing oxygen as a waste product. By 500 million years ago, fish and proto-amphibians were formed.|
|21 And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good.|
|Plesiosaurs (marine reptiles) first appeared in the latest Triassic Period, possibly in the Rhaetian stage, about 205 million years ago. They became especially common during the Jurassic Period. Pterosaurs (winged reptiles) first appeared in the late Triassic period and roamed the skies until the end of the Cretaceous (228 to 66 million years ago). The birds were an offshoot of the dinosaurs.|
|22 And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.|
|The dinosaurs first appeared during the Triassic period, 231 million years ago and flourished in the Jurassic period from 201-145 million years ago; from the end of the Triassic to the beginning of the Cretaceous.|
|23 And the evening and the morning were the fifth day.|
24 And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so.|
25 And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good.
|The fifth extinction event occurred 65 million years ago, wiping out the dinosaurs, which opened the ecosystem to the mammals|
26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.
28 And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.
|The splitting date between hominid and chimpanzee lineages is placed by some between 4 to 8 million years ago, that is, during the Late Miocene.|
29 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.
30 And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so.
|In the Cambrian era 600 million years ago, these early plants were small, unicellular or filamentous, composed mostly of soft body tissues, with simple branching. In the Ordovician era 500 million years ago plant evolution changes dramatically with the first extensive appearance of spores in the fossil record. Silurian era 425 million years brought the occurrence of vascular plants. By the Late Devonian, forests of large, primitive plants existed: lycophytes, sphenophytes, ferns, and progymnosperms had evolved. Most of these plants have true roots and leaves, and many were quite tall. Early Carboniferous land plants were very similar to those of the preceding Latest Devonian 360 million years ago , but new groups also appeared at this time. About the middle of the Permian era there was a major transition in vegetation. The swamp-loving lycopod trees of the Carboniferous 345 million years, such as Lepidodendron and Sigillaria, were replaced by the more advanced conifers. The arid, continental conditions characteristic of the Triassic era 250 million years ago steadily eased during the Jurassic era 180 million years ago, especially at higher latitudes; the warm, humid climate allowed lush jungles to cover much of the landscape. The Cretaceous era 135 million years brought flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, which spread during this period, although they did not become predominant until near the end of the period. Their evolution was aided by the appearance of bees; in fact angiosperms and insects are a good example of coevolution. The first representatives of many modern trees, including figs, planes and magnolias, appeared in the Cretaceous. At the same time, some earlier Mesozoic gymnosperms, like Conifers continued to thrive, although other taxa like Bennettitales died out before the end of the period. At the middle of the Tertiary era 35 million years ago grasses evolved from among the angiosperms. In the beginning of the Quaternary era 10,000 years ago, humans in the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East develop agriculture. Plant domestication begins with cultivation of Neolithic founder crops. This process of food production, coupled later with the domestication of animals caused a massive increase in human population that has continued to the present. In Jericho (modern Israel), there is a settlement with about 19,000 people. At the same time, Sahara is green with rivers, lakes, cattle, crocodiles and monsoons. At 8,000 years ago, Common (Bread) wheat (Triticum aestivum) originates in southwest Asia due to hybridization of emmer wheat with a goat-grass, Aegilops tauschii. At 6500 years ago, two rice species are domesticated: Asian rice, Oryza sativa, and African rice Oryza glaberrima.|
|31 And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.|
2:1 Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.
2 And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made.